Rational utilization of raw materials and effective control of their use calls for creation of computer data banks on the state of natural resources. The necessity of creation of a data bank on peats is obvious.
First, Russia occupies a highly important place in the world's resources of peat. The distribution of peat resources at the territory of Russia is, however, nonuniform. Siberia is especially rich in peat soils. As much as 3/4 of all peat resources are in Siberia and Far East, and only 1/4 of them is in the European part. This must be taken into account in location of peat processing centers. The area occupied by peat soils should also be taken into account. Peat shows with areas of less than 100 hectares prevail at the territory of Russia. Primary reserves of peat are in deposits with areas of more than 1000 hectares.
Second, more and more interest is being shown in peat fertilizers, because chemization of soil which provides a reliable increase in yield leads to formation and accumulation of toxic substances, such as ions of heavy metals, nitrogen nitrates and nitrites, in soil, ground waters and plants.
Peat is a raw material which is ecologically clean and does not pollute the environment. Peat fertilizers have high adsorption capacity and buffer action. Their use provides high productivity of plants without pollution of soil. The quality of production increases. The content of nitrogen compounds in products is lower. Tolerance of plants for unfavorable environmental conditions is higher.
Introduction of humin or peat-humin fertilizers into the soil containing high concentrations of mineral fertilizers prevents their washing out and, hence, environmental pollution. It allows no accumulation of the nitrate and nitrite forms of nitrogen in plants. They are bound into inactive forms. The effectiveness of nitrogen fertilizers thereby increases.
It should be noted that the ecological factor, the expedience of applying peat fertilizers and, hence, the necessity of development or choice of ecologically clean technologies for their production, call for searching fertilizers that could compensate for nutrient components of the soil taken by plants, especially during rich yields.